Hard scientific evidence of the effects of diet, pharmaceutical drugs & lifestyle on health from over 1,400 studies from research centers, universities and peer reviewed scientific journals.

Research by David Evans

Sunday, 20 July 2014

Low cholesterol is associated with acute liver failure

This study was published in PLoS One 2014 Jul 15;9(7):e102351
 
Study title and authors:
Low levels of blood lipids are associated with etiology and lethal outcome in acute liver failure.
Manka P, Olliges V, Bechmann LP, Schlattjan M, Jochum C, Treckmann JW, Saner FH, Gerken G, Syn WK, Canbay A.
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25025159

This study investigated the association between cholesterol levels with acute liver failure. The study included 89 acute liver failure patients.

The study found:
(a) The acute liver failure patients had low cholesterol, 121 mg/dL (3.1 mmol/L).
(b) The acute liver failure patients had low levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 63 mg/dL (1.6 mmol/L). 
(c) The acute liver failure patients had low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 16 mg/dL (0.4 mmol/L).
(d) Cholesterol levels were a significant 41% lower in patients who died or required a liver transplant compared to patients who spontaneously recovered.
(e) LDL cholesterol levels were a significant 45% lower in patients who died or required a liver transplant compared to patients who spontaneously recovered.
(f) HDL cholesterol levels were a significant 61% lower in patients who died or required a liver transplant compared to patients who spontaneously recovered.
(g) Triglyceride levels were a significant 13% lower in patients who died or required a liver transplant compared to patients who spontaneously recovered.

The study reveals that low cholesterol is associated with acute liver failure.

Tuesday, 15 July 2014

Statins significantly increase sperm abnormalities

This study was published in Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 2014 Jul 12;12(1):65

Study title and authors:
Evaluation of atorvastatin efficacy and toxicity on spermatozoa, accessory glands and gonadal hormones of healthy men: a pilot prospective clinical trial.
Pons-Rejraji H, Brugnon F, Sion B, Maqdasy S, Gouby G, Pereira B, Marceau G, Gremeau AS, Drevet J, Grizard G, Janny L, Tauveron I.

This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25016482

This study investigated the effect of statins on male fertility. In the study semen parameters were measured in 17 healthy young men (average age 24 years) who were given atorvastatin for five months.

The study found:
(a) Semen volume decreased by 10%.
(b) Sperm concentration decreased by 25%.
(c) The number of sperm decreased by 31%.
(d) The vitality of the sperm decreased by 9.5%
(e) Sperm head abnormalities increased by 11%.
(f) Sperm neck and midpiece abnormalities increased by 33%.
(g) Sperm tail abnormalities increased by 4.5%.
(h) Excess residual cytoplasm (which can impair overall sperm function and produce higher levels of reactive oxygen species, potentially leading to male infertility) increased by 68%.

Pons-Rejraji concluded that atorvastatin: "affected significantly sperm parameters of young and healthy men and was considered as deleterious... in view of our results in this young population, it may be considered that the effects could be more pronounced among older men specifically if less healthy".

Sunday, 13 July 2014

19 year study shows that the risk of death decreases as saturated fat consumption increases

This study was published in Nutrition and Metabolism 2014 Mar 6;11(1):12
 
Study title and authors:
Dietary intakes of fat and total mortality among Japanese populations with a low fat intake: the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study.
Wakai K, Naito M, Date C, Iso H, Tamakoshi A; JACC Study Group.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan. wakai@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp.
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24597664

This study aimed to elucidate associations between dietary fat and total mortality. The study included 58,672 men and women, aged 40 to 79 years, who were followed for 19.3 years.

Regarding saturated fat, the study found:
(a) Men who consumed the highest amounts of saturated fat had a 2% reduced risk of death from any cause compared to men who consumed the lowest amounts of saturated fat.
(b) Men who consumed the highest amounts of saturated fat had a 7% reduced risk of death from cardiovascular diseases compared to men who consumed the lowest amounts of saturated fat.
(c) Women who consumed the highest amounts of saturated fat had a 9% reduced risk of death from any cause compared to women who consumed the lowest amounts of saturated fat.
(d) Women who consumed the highest amounts of saturated fat had a 1% reduced risk of death from cardiovascular diseases compared to women who consumed the lowest amounts of saturated fat.

Sunday, 6 July 2014

Frequent meat consumption lowers the risk of dementia by 77%

This study was published in the British Medical Journal 2002 Oct 26;325(7370):932-3
 
Study title and authors:
Fish, meat, and risk of dementia: cohort study.
Barberger-Gateau P, Letenneur L, Deschamps V, Pérès K, Dartigues JF, Renaud S.
INSERM U330, Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, case n degrees 11, 146 rue Léo-Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France. Pascale.Barberger-Gateau@isped.u-bordeaux2.fr
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12399342
 
This study investigated the association of fish and meat consumption and the risk of dementia (including Alzheimer's). The study included 1,674 participants, aged 68 years and older, who were followed for seven years.
 
The study found:
(a) Those that consumed fish once a day had a 85% reduced risk of dementia compared to those who never consumed fish.
(b) Those that consumed fish once a day had a 81% reduced risk of Alzheimer's compared to those who never consumed fish.
(c) Those that consumed meat once a day had a 77% reduced risk of dementia compared to those who never consumed meat.
(d) Those that consumed meat once a day had a 72% reduced risk of Alzheimer's compared to those who never consumed meat.

Wednesday, 2 July 2014

The risk of diabetes rises as adherence with statin therapy increases

This study was published in Diabetes Care 2014 Jun 26. pii: DC_132215

Study title and authors:
Statins and the Risk of Diabetes: Evidence From a Large Population-Based Cohort Study.
Corrao G, Ibrahim B, Nicotra F, Soranna D, Merlino L, Catapano AL, Tragni E, Casula M, Grassi G, Mancia G.
Department of Statistics and Quantitative Methods, Division of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy giovanni.corrao@unimib.it.

This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24969582

The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between adherence with statin therapy and the risk of developing diabetes. The seven year study included 115,709 patients who were newly treated with statins. Adherence was measured by the proportion of days covered with statins.

The study found: 
(a) Compared with patients with very-low adherence (proportion of days covered less then 25%) those with low adherence (proportion of days covered 26-50%) had a 12% increased risk of developing diabetes.
(b) Compared with patients with very-low adherence (proportion of days covered less then 25%) those with intermediate adherence (proportion of days covered 51-75%) had a 22% increased risk of developing diabetes.
(b) Compared with patients with very-low adherence (proportion of days covered less then 25%) those with high adherence (proportion of days covered more than 75%) had a 32% increased risk of developing diabetes.

Corrao concluded: "In a real-world setting, the risk of new-onset diabetes rises as adherence with statin therapy increases".

Monday, 23 June 2014

Statin users have a 13% increased incidence of common infections

This study was published in the American Journal of the Medical Sciences 2014 Mar;347(3):211-6

Study title and authors:
The effect of statin therapy on the incidence of infections: a retrospective cohort analysis.
Magulick JP, Frei CR, Ali SK, Mortensen EM, Pugh MJ, Oramasionwu CU, Daniels KR, Mansi IA.
Department of Internal Medicine (JPM, SKA), San Antonio Military Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas

This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23426088

The objective of the study was to compare the incidence of infections in statin users to that in nonusers. The six year study included 45,247 subjects.

The study found that statin users had a 13% increased incidence of common infections compared to nonusers.

Friday, 13 June 2014

TIME magazine article says butter and saturated fat is good for you!

This is the headline in the latest TIME magazine by Bryan Walsh. The medical reporter on the Today show said butter, chicken skin or any type of saturated fat is good. She explained that saturated fats raise levels of benign large fluffy LDL cholesterol, and that refined carbohydrates raise levels of the dangerous small dense LDL cholesterol.


Bryan may have read the scientific evidence in my book: "Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Prevent Heart Disease"