The raison d'etre of this website is to provide you with hard scientific information which may help you make informed decisions in your quest for health (so far I have blogged concise summaries of over 1,500 scientific studies and have had three books published).

My research is mainly focused on the effects of cholesterol, saturated fat and statin drugs on health. If you know anyone who is worried about their cholesterol levels and heart disease, or has been told to take statin drugs you could send them a link to this website, and to my statin or cholesterol or heart disease books.

David Evans

Independent Health Researcher

Tuesday, 3 April 2012

The metabolic syndrome may be caused by a high fructose, and relatively low fat, low cholesterol diet

This paper was published in the Archives of Medical Science 2011 Feb;7(1):8-20

Study title and authors:
Is the metabolic syndrome caused by a high fructose, and relatively low fat, low cholesterol diet?
Seneff S, Wainwright G, Mascitelli L.
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA.

This paper can be accessed at:

The metabolic syndrome is a term that has been used to describe a number of risk factors such as elevated triglyceride levels, small sized dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol particles, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and elevated blood pressure, and it is associated with an increased risk of type II diabetes and coronary heart disease.

The authors have developed a new hypothesis regarding metabolic syndrome; namely it is a consequence of a high intake in carbohydrates and food with a high glycemic index, particularly fructose, and relatively low intake of cholesterol and saturated fat.

The authors show how the risk factors for metabolic syndrome may be exacerbated by the above way of eating:
(a) Elevated triglyceride levels: Studies show that higher levels of dietary fructose lead to increased triglyceride levels and that zero-cholesterol diets have been shown to increase triglyceride levels.
(b) Small sized low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol particles: The liver normally clears the dangerous small sized dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However in conditions of excess dietary fructose (fructose is converted to fat by the liver) the liver is overwhelmed and cannot keep up in clearing all the dangerous small sized dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.
(c) Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: The scientific literature shows that low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is the best predictor of heart disease and is associated with an increased risk of type II diabetes. This may be because that low concentrations of bile salts correspond to a reduction of HDL levels and that low-fat, high fructose diets lead to reduced bile salts because of the reduced need for the bile salts to digest fats.
(d) Obesity: Studies reveal that the obese are often deficient in vitamin D. The best sources of vitamin D are foods rich in saturated fat such as lard, butter and egg yolk.
(e) Insulin resistance: Scientific papers reveal that the overconsumption of fructose leads to liver insulin resistance.
(f) Glucose intolerance: In high carbohydrate, low fat diets, glucose and fructose enter the bloodstream very rapidly due to the abundance of carbohydrates and the lack of buffering in the gut by dietary fats. This causes a sharp rise in blood glucose levels and the excessive glucose and fructose may damage proteins.
(g) Blood pressure: Depleted amounts of cholesterol in the outer shells of fat cells weaken the structure of the cell walls and leads to sodium leakage, which results in excess sodium in the bloostream. This causes the blood vessels to constrict with the resulting increase in blood pressure.

The findings of this paper suggest the metabolic syndrome may be caused by a high fructose, and relatively low fat, low cholesterol diet.

Seneff concludes: "We would urge medical practitioners to encourage individuals exhibiting metabolic syndrome to strongly limit the consumption of dietary fructose and other high-glycemic-index carbohydrates, and to stop discouraging them from consuming foods rich in cholesterol."

Links to other studies:
High dietary intake of fructose leads to diabetes
LDL cholesterol size: does it matter?
Beneficial effects of a high fat, low carbohydrate diet on fat reduction in type 2 diabetic patients with obesity