The raison d'etre of this website is to provide you with hard scientific information which may help you make informed decisions in your quest for health (so far I have blogged concise summaries of over 1,400 scientific studies and have had three books published).

My research is mainly focused on the effects of cholesterol, saturated fat and statin drugs on health. If you know anyone who is worried about their cholesterol levels and heart disease, or has been told to take statin drugs you could send them a link to this website, and to my statin or cholesterol or heart disease books.

David Evans

Independent Health Researcher

Friday, 5 July 2013

Doctor says vegetarians develop vitamin B12 deficiency regardless of wealth, age, where they live or type of vegetarian diet

This paper was published in Nutrition Reviews 2013 Feb;71(2):110-7
Study title and authors:
How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?
Pawlak R, Parrott SJ, Raj S, Cullum-Dugan D, Lucus D.
Department of Nutrition Science, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA.
This study can be accessed at:

The aim of this paper, headed by Dr Roman Pawlak from the Department of Nutrition Science at East Carolina University, was to review the scientific literature to assess the rate of vitamin B12 deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. The review found 18 studies that assessed vitamin B12 deficiency rates.

The review found:
(a) 62% of vegetarian pregnant women were vitamin B12 deficient.
(b) Between 25-86% of vegetarian children were vitamin B12 deficient.
(c) Between 21-41% of vegetarian adolescents were vitamin B12 deficient.
(d) Between 11-90% of elderly vegetarians were vitamin B12 deficient.
(e) Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians.
(f) Higher rates of deficiency were reported among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life.

Dr Pawlak concluded: "The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet".