This study was published in the Journal of the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York 1953 Jul-Aug;20(2):118-39.
Study title and author:
Atherosclerosis: a problem in newer public health.
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13085148
This study examined the effect of fat consumption and death rates from heart disease in males aged 55-59 from 6 countries.
In this study Keys set out to prove that a higher fat intake was associated with a higher death rate from heart disease.
He used data from 6 countries (Japan, Italy, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and USA) that did seem to show that a higher fat consumption would lead to higher rates of heart disease.
However Keys actually had data for 22 countries. For reasons known only to himself he decided to ignore the data from the other 16. The other countries were, Austria, Ceylon, Chile, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden and Switzerland.
When the data for all 22 countries are taken into account, there is a totally different outcome.
The data actually shows: (See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13441073 (table IV)
(a) Those who ate more animal fat lived longer.
(b) Those who ate more animal protein lived longer.
(c) Those who ate more plant protein died earlier.
(d) Those who ate more carbohydrate died earlier.
This study from Keys is often quoted as proof that a high fat diet is dangerous. When Keys data is analysed it shows that more animal fat in the diet actually extends life and more carbohydrate in the diet lowers life expectancy.