The raison d'etre of this website is to provide you with hard scientific information which may help you make informed decisions in your quest for health (so far I have blogged concise summaries of over 1,500 scientific studies and have had three books published).

My research is mainly focused on the effects of cholesterol, saturated fat and statin drugs on health. If you know anyone who is worried about their cholesterol levels and heart disease, or has been told to take statin drugs you could send them a link to this website, and to my statin or cholesterol or heart disease books.

David Evans

Independent Health Researcher

Saturday, 9 March 2013

Egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin

This study was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999 Aug;70(2):247-51
Study title and authors:
Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in plasma after dietary supplementation with egg yolk.
Handelman GJ, Nightingale ZD, Lichtenstein AH, Schaefer EJ, Blumberg JB.
Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.
This study can be accessed at:

The lead researcher of the study, Dr Garry Handelman from Tufts University Boston, notes that lutein and zeaxanthin have been identified as carotenoids that accumulate in the macular region of the human retina that may play a role in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration and some forms of cancer.

The study sought to determine whether levels of lutein and zeaxanthin are elevated after consumption of egg yolks. The study included 11 men and women who firstly consumed diets without any egg yolks for 4.5 weeks, and secondly consumed similar diets with the addition of 1.3 egg yolks per day for another 4.5 weeks.

The study found:
(i) The diets containing egg yolks raised levels of lutein by 39% compared to the diets containing no egg yolks.
(ii) The diets containing egg yolks raised levels of zeaxanthin by 128% compared to the diets containing no egg yolks.

Dr Handelman concluded: "Egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin".